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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  February 8, 2015 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> stewart: in this edition for sunday, february 8: diplomatic efforts intensify seeking a solution to the conflict in ukraine. in our signature segment, from france, an increase in anti semitic incidents have some jews feeling under siege and others thinking about leaving >> we think we are french people before to be jewish, but no, we are jewish. >> stewart: and the powerball jackpot has already surpassed $450 million, what that may mean for education in your state. next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by:
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corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios in lincoln center in new york this is alison stewart. >> stewart: good evening, thanks for joining us. i'm alison stewart in for hari sreenivasan. there's a sign of progress in talks to rebuild the failing peace plan between russia and ukraine. leaders of germany and france are now planning what they call intensive talks in minsk on wednesday. they hope to create a new
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package of measures to stem fighting in eastern ukraine. the previous peace deal fell apart in september. before the minsk meeting, german chancellor angela merkel will sit down with president obama tomorrow. while there have been reports of a rift between the u.s. and its european allies over whether to arm ukrainian fighters. this morning, secretary of state john kerry said leaders are united in finding a diplomatic solution. >> president putin's got to make the decision to take an off ramp and we have to make it clear to him that we are absolutely committed to the sovereignty and integrity of ukraine no matter what. both european and ukrainian leaders are pushing for greater autonomy in eastern ukraine. but russian president vladimir putin wants kiev to cede broad power to the rebels, allowing moscow to maintain influence in the region. at the same time, the u.s. is involved in talks with iran over limiting its nuclear program. iran's foreign minister mohammad javad zarif said today he expects the u.s to lift economic sanctions quickly if negotiators
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can reach a deal. but secretary of state kerry said this morning both sides have to agree on some fundamental decisions over the next few weeks, otherwise, he says, it would be impossible to extend the talks any further. >> either you make the decisions to prove your program is a peaceful one, or if you're unable to do that, it may tell a story that none of us want to hear. >> stewart: the timeline for negotiations has already been extended twice and the next deadline is late march. in japan, an unprecedented move to prevent a journalist from traveling to syria to report on the refugee situation there. officials seized the passport of freelance photographer yuichi sugimoto, saying the government acted to protect the man's life. this after two japanese hostages were recently beheaded by isis militants. new statistics reveal that india and china are in the grips of a massive air pollution crisis.
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the economist reports that co2 emissions have skyrocketed in china and steadily increased in india over the last two decades. traffic fumes, industrial emissions, construction dust and burning trash are reportedly to blame for the deaths of nearly 700,000 people in india each year. experts say the death toll will go up in the coming decades. in china, the average person's life is more than five years shorter because of the foul air. here in the u.s., united steelworkers are gaining momentum in their first nationwide strike in decades. last night workers at two b.p. plants in ohio and indiana announced they'd join the growing strike against oil refineries. about 3,800 workers launched the work stoppage february first. the u.s.w. says negotiations
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broke down over health care benefits and hiring non-union workers. a spokesperson at b.p. says the company provides good wages but needs flexibility in hiring. washington d.c. is fast approaching a record-breaking number of the homeless living in emergency shelters. city workers and volunteers spread out across the capitol wednesday for an annual count of homeless people in the city. they found 4,000 living in emergency shelters. that number has grown by more than 1,500 over the past four weeks. d.c. leaders have been forced to find more hotel rooms as the shelters fill up. advocates say at least 100 families seek shelter every time the temperature drops below freezing. one of the winningest coaches in college basketball has died. coach dean smith led the university of north carolina men's basketball team for 36 years and was known throughout the game as an innovator. he had only one losing season in three decades and coached some of the games biggest names including michael jordan who said of smith, "he was my mentor, my teacher, my second father." when smith retired in 1997 he
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had more wins-- 879-- than any coach in men's division-one history. winning two n.c.a.a. tournament titles and coaching the u.s. team to a gold medal in the 1976 olympics before being inducted into the naismith memorial basketball hall of fame in 1983. dean smith was 83-years-old. we turn now to our continuing series of conversations about the war on isis. this week brought more news in that fight, on monday, the islamic militant group released a video showing the killing of a jordanian pilot the it had held captive since december. isis also claimed that kayla jean mueller, an american woman it had also been holding captive, was killed in a jordanian airstrike. and today, john allen, the retired marine corps general who heads the us led coalition fight against isis had this to say: >> isil is at an entirely different level than al-qaeda was.
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better organized. its command and control is better. we should take it very seriously. to help us analyze these developments, we are joined from washington d.c. by anthony cordesman of the center for strategic and international studies, mr. cordesman previously served in the state department and was the director of intelligence assessment in the office of the secretary of defense. >> mr. cordesman, i would like to start with jordan where there has been significant action. first the execution of two members of isis, and of course king abdullah saying that he will continue to use his military until, quote, they run out of fuel and bullet its. please tell me what is jordan's capacity in this manner to fight isis? >> it's very effective air force. it flies the if h 16, it has modern air surface ordnance to carry out precision strikes. it has the capability to get targeting information from u.s. intelligence capabilities. and targeting is absolutely critical to this kind of operation. so when jordan commits a large number of aircraft, it really does mean something.
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>> tell me why targeting is critical. >> well, one of the problems you have at any time is when you have a dispersed nonstate actor, a force that doesn't wear uniforms, that doesn't have a lot of heavy military i equipment,-- equipment, you need advanced intelligence assets to know where they are and then you also need to know if you are going to strike at them, you're not going to strike at civilians. your target is really going to be the enemy. there also is the problem of how do you locate the most important targets and that requires the kind of satellite data, the kind of satellite intelligence capability that really only the united states can provide. >> knowing where the leadership is do we know, how do we know and if we don't, how do we find out? >> we use a process which some people call fusion, you're not relying simply on things like unmanned aerial vehicles you're not relying
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on photo or imagery satellites or any other one indicator alone. you're looking for patterns. you're looking for a slip, when they send a message they shouldn't send. you're tracking movements in and out. and you're tying these together in near realtime so you can provide the targeting data for aircraft or for these unmanned combat aerial vehicles. >> i can remember being in a background session with a military analyst who once said about al qaeda, that you can't think of it as what you think of an army. you have to think of it as a movement. is isis the same? >> i think it's always difficult to describe. it's not i-- not a regular fighting force, but unlike terrorist groups, it can fight. and it could defeat the iraqi army. so it is somewhere in between an army and a terrorist force. >> we talked about jordan's effectiveness. how about other players in the region? >> well, at this point in
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time when it comes down to the threats that the islamic state or isis faces, it's largely air power. you have some good air forces, it isn't just jordan, it is the united arab emirate. most of the arab forces are quite capable. certainly our nato allies, forces like australia are very effective. but the key problems are that the iraqi army is still very weak. it has not recovered from the dictatorship or almost dictatorship of maliki. it's going to require at least months more before it can have even limited offensive capability. and when we come to syria we need to remember a lot of the fighting is there. the fact is that it isn't just the islamic state. the force that defeated the rebels that we had backed most and shipped arms to is the al noussra front which is allied to al qaeda.
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almost all of the movements that are rebel movements that are active in the field have some sort of islamist character. so the problem there is it isn't just the al noussra front, it's both the rebels and to some extent, of course, the assad forces. it's not just one threat we're dealing with. >> anthony cordesman, thank you so much for your analysis. >> a pleasure. >> sreenivasan: and now to our signature segment. our original in-depth reports from around the world. last month's terror attack at a kosher store in paris called attention to rising anti- semitism in france and the growing number of incidents throughout europe. in response to that terror attack, and the one on the french satirical magazine, french authorities deployed thousands of troops to boost security at sensitive sites, including both mosques and synagogues. but this week, attackers slashed three soldiers guarding a jewish community center in nice.
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french authorities believe a small number of radicalized young men from north africa are responsible for a dis- proportionate share of the anti- semitic incidents in france. even so, some jews in france feel under siege. and a record number are fleeing to israel. special newshour correspondent martin himel traveled to france, egypt and sweden before filing this report. >> reporter: this is garges-leès- gonesse, a partisan suburb, where the synagogue shaare rahamim was built more than 60 years ago. it's now smack in the middle of what has become a mostly muslim immigrant community. jews here say they have been regularly subjected to antisemitic attacks. >> ( translated ): it's a real bunker, but this is the only way to reassure the congregants. otherwise we'd have to move out of the synagogue. >> reporter: this apartment block is really on the frontline of a conflict between this immigrant community and the jews that worship in the synagogue to my right. it's from this apartment block
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that a molotov cocktail has been thrown at the synagogue, rocks have been thrown at the synagogue, even a bullet has been fired from this direction. jews at the synagogue told us they typically summon the police a few times a week. and when the police come, they document the new graffiti: swastikas, "sale juif," which means "dirty jew." >> it's true that it's not the best place for a jewish community. but we're here, so we have to get on with it. >> reporter: even before the recent attack on the kosher market in paris, antisemitic protests were intensifying. there were a number of jewish store owners who were forced to lock themselves in during one protest, after israel's war with hamas last summer in gaza. between january and july 2014, according to data gathered by jewish groups and the french government the number of antisemitic acts in france nearly doubled compared to the same period in 2013. the same figures show half of all racist attacks in france target jews, even though they number less than one percent of the population.
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and years ago at another protest in paris, muslims demonstrated, chanting "khaybar yayahud," which means that mohammed's army will crush the jews as they did in khaybar in the seventh century. radical islamic activists had attacked jews years before the recent kosher market kidnappings and murders. in 2012, that buildup of hatred against jews led to a bloody onslaught perpetrated by a radical islamic terrorist. mohammed merah, a french radical muslim shot and killed a rabbi his two small sons, and an eight-year-old girl at the entrance of a jewish school in toulouse, a city about 420 miles south of paris. it was one of the worst antisemitic attacks in europe since world war ii. >> if you come to a jewish school and you shoot a jewish
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children on her head, you cannot be something else than an extraordinary antisemite. and the question of antisemitism was somehow blurred by the idea that we should not stigmatize any population. >> reporter: jewish leaders point out the french muslim community is not at war with french jewry and they note muslim leaders condemned the attacks. >> muslim religion is not responsible for this murder but radical islam is responsible for this murder and this murder is an antisemitic murder. >> reporter: seventeen-year-old tomas was at the school during the attack and is now too afraid to wear his jewish prayer cap, his yarmulke, outside of the house. he vividly recalls the day of the attack. >> i see people bleeding, people crying, screaming, but i'm still
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shocked. it's the worst day of my life. >> reporter: though he and his family still observe the sabbath every weekend inside their home his father, marc, fears it may be too dangerous for his family to remain in france. more than 70 years ago, marc friedman's grandmother was taken from this home by nazis and sent to a concentration camp. >> she had been deported to bergen belsen, and she survive and she came back. i buy this house. to be in the same house, you know? because it's important. >> reporter: now friedman fears he will be forced to leave his home because of resurgent antisemitism. >> we think we are french people before to be jewish. but no, we are jewish.
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>> reporter: friedman and many jews are convinced the source of this antisemitism comes from anger, partially from economic hardships and social exclusion. but they are also worried that it is being generated by a militant islamic ideology. according to police reports mohammed merah, the assailant in the school attack, studied salafism, an ultra-conservative form of islam which has a wide following in egypt. sheik mohammed ali suleiman is an egyptian salafist and scholar whom we interviewed in cairo. according to the sheik, there will be an inevitable apocalyptic showdown. >> muslims and jews will fight until the day of judgment. it is a religious war between muslims and jews. >> reporter: the sheik tells us a hadith, a saying that comes from the prophet mohammed. sayings are interpreted one way or another by various muslim groups. >> the jew will hide behind the stone and the tree, so the stone and the tree will call out "oh muslim, servant of god, a
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jew is behind me, so come and kill him." >> reporter: it's this radical militant islamic ideology, professing a genocide of jews, that inspired mohammed merah the assailant in the school attack, and the assailant who struck at the kosher supermarket in paris. rabbi shaar kesselman's father- in-law established the school attacked in toulouse. kesselman is now the rabbi of the jewish community in malmoö sweden. he says there has been a number of antisemitic acts near his synagogue. that's why the rabbi calls the road in front of his synagogue the "street of hate." >> cars driving by, people rolling down the window, shouting antisemitic remarks. there have been incidents of people throwing things at me. and i had a car try to run me and my wife over once, which was quite a traumatic incident. the vast majority of those which stand behind these incidents are
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immigrants, or people with immigrant backgrounds. i believe that the trauma which europe has experienced after the holocaust, is starting to fade out. i don't think this is any new form of antisemitism, i think it's a different face, a different cover, but it is the same old jew hatred. if a person's hate could take them so far to start cursing and throwing things at a total stranger just because he is jewish, for me that says that all the normal boundaries and limitations, of what's accepted in a civilized society, have fallen. >> learn more about why some jews are leaving france to live in israel. visit >> stewart: this wednesday's powerball jackpot has already spiked to more than $450 million
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and will probably grow over the next couple of days. the huge prize is expected to boost sales this week, but ticket buying has reportedly dropped 35% since 2013, and that's putting state budgets on the losing end of the lottery system. joining me from washington d.c. to talk about the pitfalls of powerball is ben leubsdorf with "the wall street journal." >> so ben here's the obvious question, why is the decline in participates? >> well, this is the biggest jackpot we've seen since december 2013 for any lottery game. and that's why people aren't buying tickets. people buy tickets, they get office pools, people come off the sidelines who weren't regular players when you have a big eye-popping jackpot like this and we haven't had one in a while. that's the main reason that powerball sales drop 35% in 2014 from the prior year. in 2013, 2012, we had this string of really big jackpots for megamillions an powerball and that got
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people playing the game. now when we haven't had those big numbers, people haven't been as impressed with an $80 million jackpot as they are with something above 200, above $300 million. >> explain to me how that directly results in state budgets having a problem. >> well, 44 states rely on lottery revenue as part of their revenue picture. and it's not the biggest part of their revenue structure, taxes federal grants, those are still the big parts. but they rely on this money in order to in many cases pay for education or other expenses. so when you have a big reduction in powerful ball playing, you've got state lotteries saying we've got to make up that revenue somehow, so some states, virginia in particular has tweaked their-- to roll out more scratch out games, instant win games to make that up lost revenue to make sure they don't have a shortfall when it comes to time to settle their budget. >> so if you can't count on participants in the lottery, why do states have this as part of their budget portport? >> well, you know, by its
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nature a random chance that these drawings are pretty random. so when we had a hot streak in 2012, 2013, states were raking in a lot of revenue. now we've had a dry streak for a while. and they haven't been seeing it. but i think most officials aren't too worried that this is going to continue. this could be the beginning of another string of big jackpots. >> it has been serious for certain states. arkansas for example had one scholarship program that had a $5 million deficit. is there anything that states can do to prevent this from happening to them? >> well, some states are very conservative in their revenue estimates. i spoke to the head of the north carolina lottery who says that they budget for-- they assume that they're going to have the standard number of players. they don't count on a big jackpot to bring in lots of new players, if they dock, she said, that's gravy that's great for them. but they're not going to be in trouble if they don't have big jackpots materialized. >> len lubes dorf from the
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"the wall street journal" thanks so much. >> thank you. >> this is pbs newshour sunday. >> sreenivasan: for decades, two bronze sculptures languished in dusty obscurity in the corner of a cambridge museum. ben chapman has the story. >> the magazine fiv-- magazine any significance has never been in doubt but who have created them has been lost. now removed from obscurity and polished up for public display, they could be two of the world's most significant sculptures. >> michelangelo was one of the greatest if not the greatest sculptures ever to have livered and we know that he made works in bronze but none of them appear to have survived. there are two, not one but two, there is a big gap in our understanding of his genius. >> the mystery of the
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consume ture began to unravel when researchers saw this copy a a sketch by one of his apprentices showing a panther and its rider. they found the style matched his work other work including the sistine chapel completed around the same time. but the greatest test may be yet to come as the public and the art world are invited to admire and pour over these skupt tures look at the evidence and decide for themselves whether they really are michelangelo's work. >> why did it matter? >> well, you know, these bronzes are magnificent things. they were deserved-- we're curious, we're inquisitive, we want to know who made them and why, you know, what they are used for. >> for art historians that information is invaluable. for the owner of these sculptures he will find out for sure if they are to be attributed officially to michelangelo in the summer, it really is priceless. >> ben chapman, circumstances tv news
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cambridge. >> finally tonight, the greece is laying out a plan to pull his country out of debt. the prime minister announced today he wants to renegotiate the country's massive debt deal. raise the minimum wage and offer free electricity to the poorest citizens. but eu leaders want him to step up austerity measures in exchange for the recent 240 billion euro bailout. the u.s. is urging the eurozone leaders to compromise. that is it for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm alison stewart, thanks for watching. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh
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>> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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